Eid al-Fitr ~ عيد الفطر‎ (Feast of Breaking the Fast)

Eid al-Fitr (“festival of breaking of the fast”), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslimsworldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting . The religious Eid is a single day during which Muslims are not permitted to fast. The holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The day of Eid, therefore, falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal. This is a day when Muslims around the world show a common goal of unity. The date for the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on the observation of new moon by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality. However, in most countries, it is generally celebrated on the same day as Saudi Arabia.

 

Eid al-Fitr has a particular Salat (Islamic prayer) consisting of two Rakats (units) and generally offered in an open field or large hall. It may be performed only in congregation (Jama’at) and, has an additional extra six Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying “Allāhu Akbar”, literally “God is greatest”), three of them in the beginning of the first raka’ah and three of them just beforeRuku’ in the second raka’ah in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam.  Other Sunni schools usually have twelve Takbirs, seven in the first, and five at the beginning of the second raka’ah. This Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, Fard(obligatory), Mustahabb (strongly recommended, just short of obligatory) or mandoob (preferable).

Muslims believe that they are commanded by God, as mentioned in the Quran, to continue their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat and fitra before offering the Eid prayers.

Different Names of Eid al-Fitr:

Eid al-Fitr goes by various names around the world, including:

  • Acehnese – Uroë Raya Puasa (“Feast of Fasting”)
  • Albanian language – Fitër Bajrami
  • Arabic – عيد الفطر Eid Al-Fitr
  • Albanian – Fitër Bajrami, Bajrami i madh (“Greater Feast”)
  • Azerbaijan – Ramazan Bayramı, Orucluq Bayramı
  • Bambara – Seli, Selinicinin (“Lesser Seli”)
  • Bengali – রোজার ঈদ, ঈদুল ফিতর / Rozar Eid, Eid Ul-Fitr
  • Bosnian – Ramazanski bajram (“Ramadan Feast”), Mali Bajram (“Lesser Feast”)
  • Bulgarian – Рамазан Байрам / Ramazan Bayram
  • Chinese – 开斋节 / Kāi zhāi jié
  • Croatian – Ramazanski bajram (“Ramadan Feast”)
  • Dutch – Suikerfeest (“Sugar Feast”)
  • Filipino – Wakas ng Ramadan, Hari Raya Buka Puasa, Pagtatapos ng Pag-aayuno
  • French (esp. Senegal & Mali) – Korité (from Wolof)
  • German – Ramadanfest, Zuckerfest (Ramadan Feast, Sugar Feast)
  • Greek – Μπαϊράμι (Bairami, from Turkish Bayram)
  • Hausa – Sallah, Karamas’Sallah (“small Sallah”)
  • Hebrew – עיד אל-פיטר
  • Hindi – ईद उल-फ़ित्र
  • Indonesian – Hari Raya Idul Fitri, Hari Lebaran
  • Javanese – Riyadin Pitrah (polite), Riyaya Pitrah; Lebaran; Idul Fitri, Ngaidul Fitri, Ngidil Fitri
  • Kazakh – Ораза айт / Oraza ait
  • Kurdish – جێژنی ڕەمەزان / Cejna Remezanê
  • Kyrgyz – Orozo Mayram
  • Macedonian – Рамазан Бајрам
  • Maghrebi Arabic – عيد الصغير / ‘Id as-Saghir (“Lesser Eid”)
  • Malay – Hari Raya Aidilfitri (“Feast of Eid al-Fitr”), Hari Raya Puasa (“Feast of Fasting”), Hari Lebaran
  • Malayalam – ചെറിയ പെരുന്നാൾ / Ceṟiya perunāḷ
  • Minangkabau – Hari Rayo
  • Montenegrin – Ramazanski Bajram
  • Pashto – کمکی اختر / Kamkay Akhtar (“Lesser Feast”); کوچنی اختر / Kočnay Akhtar; وړوکی اختر / Warrukay Akhtar
  • Persian – عید فطر / Eid-e Fitr
  • Portuguese – Celebração do fim do jejum
  • Russian – Праздник Разговения
  • Serbian – Рамазански бајрам
  • Sindhi – Eid Ke Namaaz
  • Somali – Ciid Yare
  • Spanish – Fiesta de la ruptura del ayuno
  • Sundanese – Boboran Siyam
  • Swahili – Sikukuu ya Idi, Sikukuu ya Mfunguo Mosi
  • Tamil – நோன்பு பெருநாள் / Nōṉpu perunāḷ
  • Thai language – วันอีด / Eid-Al fitr
  • Tatar – Ураза байрам / Uraza bayram
  • Turkish – Ramazan Bayramı (“Ramadan Feast”)
  • Turkmen – Oraza baýramy
  • Urdu – چھوٹی عید / Choṭī ʿĪd—Lesser Eid ; میٹھی عید / Mīṭhī ʿĪd—Sweet Eid; عیدُ الفطر / ʿĪdu l-Fit̤r—Eid of breaking the fast
  • Uzbek – Хайит Муборак / Hayitingiz Muborak (Happy Eid)
  • Uyghur – روزا ھېيت / Rozi Heyt
  • Zarma – Jingar Keyna (“Lesser Feast”)

History

Before the advent of Islam in Arabia, there is mention of festivals as well as some others among the Arabs. The Israelites had festivals as well, but as is evident from the Old Testament and other scriptures, these festivals related more to commemorating certain days of their history.

Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It is observed on the first of the month of Shawwal at the end of the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting.

According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Madinah after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas reports:

When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves with recreation and merriment. He asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation. At this, the Prophet remarked that the Almighty has fixed two days [of festivity] instead of these for you which are better than these: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha

For Muslims, both the festivals of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are occasions for showing gratitude to God and remembering Him, and are an occasion of entertainment. ‘Aishahnarrates that when on an Eid day her father Abu Bakr stopped young girls from singing, Muhammad said: Abu Bakr! [Let them sing]; every nation has an ‘id and [this day] is our Eid.

Islamic tradition

Many Muslims often bring prayer rugs to the Mosque on Eid al-Fitr.

Eid al-Fitr marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. This has to do with the communal aspects of the fast, which expresses many of the basic values of the Muslim community; e.g., empathy for the poor, charity, worship, steadfastness, patience etc. Fasting is also believed by some scholars to extol fundamental distinctions, lauding the power of the spiritual realm, while acknowledging the subordination of the physical realm. It also teaches a Muslim to stay away from worldly desires and to focus entirely on the Lord and thank Him for his blessings. It is a rejuvenation of the religion and it creates a stronger bond between the Muslim and his Lord. After the end of Ramadan, is a big celebration of Eid.

  • Source: Wikipedia
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